A wound is defined as an injury or crack on the surface of the skin caused by physical, chemical, mechanical and/or thermal damage. Wound healing is a native process for the regeneration of dermal and epidermal tissue.
Dressings for wound healing are used for the protection of wounds, the elimination of bodily fluids from the site of injury, inhibition of invasion by external microorganisms, wound healing, and sometimes the acceleration of the healing process. Therefore, an ideal compress should meet certain characteristics, such as homeostatic capacity, bacterial barrier capacity, inflammatory fluid absorption capacity, a suitable degree of water vapour transfer, sufficient gas exchange capacity, the ability to adapt to the contours of the injured area, functional adhesion (adherent to healthy tissue, but not to the injured tissue), and should be painless to the patient, easily removable and, ultimately, affordable.
Nanofibers are a material suitable for dressings because of the unique properties of a nanofiber layer. Their highly porous structure with well-interconnected pores is especially important for the secretion of fluid from the wound. The small pores and large surface area not only prevent the invasion of microorganisms, but also contribute to the regulation of fluid removal. In addition, ES offers a simple way of adding drugs to nanofiber structures for possible medical and antibacterial purposes.
Modern dressing materials made of spun biopolymers contain various active components beneficial for wound healing. These materials are of a fibrous origin, with fiber segment sizes ranging from tens of nanometres to several microns.
With the proper choice of biopolymer, these materials, compared to conventional dressings, such as gauze, significantly improve wound healing. An overview of the different types of injuries, effective parameters of wound healing and dressing materials (hyaluronic acid, cellulose, chitosan, collagen, fibrin, PGA, PLLA, PCL, etc.), with a special emphasis on materials prepared by ES, is provided.