Nanotechnology is an area attracting the attention of many research and industrial branches. Nanomaterials have several advantages over bulk materials such as the huge surface-to-volume ratio, very high porosity and completely different physiochemical properties. Of the various process methods (drawing, phase separation, self-alignment, etc.), processes in high electrostatic field are the only viable method that can be further developed for the mass production of nanomaterials and especially nanofibrous materials from various polymers.
STRUCTURE OF NANOMATERIALS
The morphology of nanomaterials greatly influences all their properties:
Mechanical (tensile strength, breaking strain)
Physiochemical (biodegradability, drug release, surface size)
Biological (cell infiltration, orientation of cell growth etc.)
One of the most common structures manufactured by electrospinning is a nanofiber. Nanofibers provide connections between the nano- and macro-world because their diameters are in the order of nanometers, while their lengths can run into hundreds of meters or more. To meet the official definition, nanofibers must have a fiber diameter of less than 100 nm, although the commercial sector allows an upper fiber diameter limit of 300 nm or even 500 nm. Nanofibers can be easily accompanied by nanoparticles according to the needs of the specific application.
The 4SPIN® emitters allow different types of polymers to be spun, from synthetic to natural polymers or polymer mixtures:
Fields adopting electrospinning in recent years:
Automotive (fuel cells and filters, bedding protection, fabric products for HVAC etc.)
Health Care (targeted drug delivery, artificial joints, tissue replacement)
Chemical Industry (nanotubes, nanocomposites, cosmetic creams, UV protection)
Environment (filtration, biodegradation, removal of impurities, marking of food, desalinisation)
Electronics (storage devices, spintronics, bioelectronics, quantum electronics)
Military (respirators, fabrics providing biological or chemical protection)
Textile Industry (novel apparels, sports clothing, hydrophobic and non-soiling fabrics)
For many reasons, the application of nanomaterials in biomedicine seems to be very promising. Compared with the conventional materials, the surface area of nanostructured materials is much larger, allowing for the adhesion of cells and large quantities of proteins and drugs.
Application of nanomaterials in biomedicine:
Tissue Engineering (replacement of damaged tissues including the skin, bones, cartilage, lymph nodes, blood vessels, muscle, and other tissues)
Drug Delivery (biodegradable or non-biodegradable nanomaterials can be used to control the release of drugs either through diffusion alone or through diffusion and degradation)
Scaffolds (sufficient surface and various surface chemical properties facilitating cell adhesion, growth, migration and differentiation can be achieved using biocompatible nanofibers)
Wound Healing (novel dressing materials made of spun biopolymers containing various active components beneficial for wound healing with fiber segment sizes ranging from tens of nanometres to several microns)
Many in vitro studies of nanofiber wound healing bandages, scaffolds and drug carriers have shown that nanostructured materials outperform their micro or macro counterparts even when they are composed of the same raw material. The properties of nanofiber layers, such as porosity, can generally be adapted.
MACROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF NANOMATERIALS
Besides producing large nanofibrous sheets, 4SPIN® technology is also able to create different 3D structures. These objects combine the advantages of nanomaterials such as an extremely large surface area, improved reactivity or a high porosity with good mechanical properties, which allow their further processing and utilization in various fields (vascular tissue engineering, wound healing etc.).